Supplementary readings


These articles, mostly from the primary literature, are meant to enrich your course experience by exposing you to research done with different groups of invertebrates.  We will not have the class time to discuss each article, but please talk with me about aspects you don't understand.  You are responsible for reading each of the numbered articles as listed on the reading schedule.  Other readings listed are optional.  Click on the author's name to access the article in .pdf format (Adobe Acrobat Reader needed to view articles).


NEW!  Files require username (biol337) and password (available on syllabus).


Unit 2: Porifera

  1. Palumbi, S R (1984). Tactics of acclimation: morphological changes of sponges in an unpredictable environment. Science 225: 1478-1480.

Also of interest: Hildemann WH, Johnson I S and P L Jokiel (1979). Immunocompetence in the Lowest Metazoan Phylum: Transplantation Immunity in Sponges.  Science 204: 420-422.

Unit 7: Invertebrate parasites

  1. Moore, J. (1984). Parasites that change the behavior of their host. Scientific American 250:108-115.
  2. Desowitz, R. (1987). Controlling the schistosome at a snail's pace.  In New Guinea Tapeworms and Jewish Grandmothers: Tales of Parasites and People.  W.W. Norton and Co.: New York.

Also of interest:  Desowitz, R. (1987). Itamae san sashimi, ni mushi gan imasu! (Waiter, there's a worm in my sashimi!) In New Guinea Tapeworms and Jewish Grandmothers: Tales of Parasites and People.  W.W. Norton and Co.: New York.

Unit 10: Arthropods

  1. Taylor, JRA and WM Kier (2003).  Switching skeletons: hydrostatic support in molting crabs.  Science 301:209-210.

Also of interest:  Smith LD and AR Palmer (1994).  Effects of manipulated diet on size and performance of brachyuran crab claws. Science 264:710-712.

Unit 12: Echinoderms

  1. Motokawa, T. (1984).  Catch connective tissue: the connective tissue with adjustable mechanical properties.  Proceedings of the Fifth International Echinoderm Conference. pp. 69-73.

Also of interest:  Aizenberg J, Tkachenko A, Weiner S, Addadi L and G Hendler (2001).  Calcitic microlenses as part of the photoreceptor system in brittlestars.  Nature 412:819-822 (don't worry about mathematical details).

Unit 16: History and phylogeny

  1. Holmes B (1997).  When we were worms.  New Scientist 156 (2104):30-35.
  2. Thomas A L R (1997).  The breath of life--did increased oxygen levels trigger the Cambrian Explosion? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 12:44-45.

Also of interest:  Conway Morris, S (2000).  Nipping the Cambrian "explosion" in the bud?  Bioessays 22:1053-1056.

Also of interest: Wray GA, Levinton JS, Shapiro L (1996) Molecular evidence for deep Precambrian divergences among metazoan phyla. Science 274: 568-573.

Also of interest: Dunn et al. (2008). Broad phylogenomic sampling improves resolution of the animal tree of life. Nature 452, 745-749.

Also of interest: Ryan et al. (2013).  The Genome of the Ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi and Its Implications for Cell Type Evolution. Science 342, 1242592-1 - 1242592-8. DOI: 10.1126/science.1242592


Unit 17: Mechanisms of diversity

  1. Raup D (1962).  Computer as aid in describing form in gastropod shells.  Science138:150-152.
  2. Erwin D, Valentine J, Jablonski D (1997).  The Origin of Animal Body Plans.  American Scientist 85:126-137.

Also of interest:  Lowe C J and G A Wray (2000).  Radical alterations in the roles of homeobox genes during echinoderm evolution.  Nature 389:718-720.

Unit 18: Modular growth

  1. Janzen, D.H. (1977).  What are dandelions and aphids?  American Naturalist 111:586-589.
  2. Jackson J B C and T P Hughes (1985).  Adaptive strategies of coral reef invertebrates.  American Scientist 73:265-274.

Also of interest:  Hughes TP and JBC Jackson (1980).  Do corals lie about their age?  Some demographic consequences of partial mortality, fission, and fusion.  Science 209:713-715.

Unit 20: Physical biology

  1. Podolsky, R.D. (1994).  Temperature and water viscosity: physiological versus mechanical effects on suspension feeding.  Science 265:100-103.
  2. Vogel, S. (1978).  Organisms that capture currents.  Scientific American 239(2):128-139.

Also of interest:  Denny, M. and B. Gaylord (1996). Why the urchin lost its spines: hydrodynamic forces and survivorship in three echinoids. Journal of Experimental Biology 199: 717-729.

Unit 21: Plankton and meiofauna

  1. Stich, H-B and W Lampert (1981). Predator evasion as an explanation of diurnal vertical migration by zooplankton.  Nature 293:396-398.

Also of interest:  Rhode S.C, Pawlowski M. and R. Tollrian (2001). The impact of ultraviolet radiation on the vertical distribution of zooplankton of the genus Daphnia.  Nature 412:69-72.

Unit 22: Conservation biology

  1. Wilson EO (1987). The little things that run the world.  Conservation Biology 1:344-346.
  2. Barry JP, Baxter CH, Sagarin RD, Gilman SE. 1995.  Climate-Related, Long-Term Faunal Changes in a California Rocky Intertidal
    Community.  Science 267:672-675.

Also of interest:  Tickell SC (1997).  The importance of biodiversity information.  Pp. 1-4 in Biodiversity Information: Needs and Opinions.